幼児の3選択弁別移行学習におよぼす言語強化の組合わせの効果と誤り要因分析   :   The Effects of Verbal Reinforcement Combination on Three-alternative Discrimination Learning and it's Shift Learning in Infants and the Analysis of Error Factors 

作成者 松田, 伯彦, 松田, 文子
作成者の別表記 Matsuda, Michihiko, Matsuda, Fumiko
日本十進分類法 (NDC) 370
内容 幼児に3選択弁別学習の習得とその次元内あるいは次元間移行学習をおこなわせ, その結果を量約および質的に調べた。その際, RW, RNまたはNWの言語強化の組合わせの下で学習が行なわれた。その主な結果は次のようであった。1.原学習では, RW群がもっともすぐれ, RN群とNW群には差はなかった。2.移行学習では, 次元内移行群の方が次元間移行群よりすぐれていた。また次元内移行群では, 三つの言語強化群間にまったく差がないが, 次元間移行群では, RN群がすぐれ, NW群が劣る傾向がみられた。3.移行学習の成績を誤り要因分析により, 質的に分析した結果, 次元間移行群の方が次元内移行群より, 多くの誤り要因において, 出現率が高かった。特に, 原学習の正値の偏好, 色の交替反応, 形の交替反応, 位置の交替反応, 位置のWin-stay-lose-shiftである。以上のような諸結果をあわせて考えると, 幼児は移行学習においても, Wという負の強化によって与えられる情報をほとんど利用せず, むしろWは心理的圧力を与えて学習に妨害的に働いていることがわかる。
This experiment was designed to examine effects of the verbal reinforcement combinations on a three-alternative discrimination learning and it's inter-dimensional or intra-dimensional shift learning in infants by the analysis of error factors. The Ss saw in front of them a series of cards each consisting of three figures arranged horizontally. The shapes of figures were circle, triangle and square at random, each of which was painted randomly red, green or yellow. The Ss were asked to choose a figure in each card which they thought correct and to push the button in front of this figure. One of three colors was designed as correct value randomly for each S in the original learning. We set 9 trials as one block and the criterion of learning as the state of all correct responses in a block. After reaching to the criterion of learning in the original learning the inter-dimensional shift learning where another color was set to be correct or the intra-dimensional shift learning where a shape was set to be correct was continued. The Ss were reinforced, through the original and the shift learnings, under one of three combinations of verbal reinforcement, that is, RW, RN and NW. The learning process of the shift learning in each S was analyzed into error factors shown in Table 1. The results were as follows: 1. In the original learning, RW was more effective than RN or NW. There were little differences between the performance under RN and that under NW. 2. In the shift learning the inter-dimensional shift learning was easier than the intra-dimensional shift learning. In the inter-dimensional shift learning there were little differences in perfomances among three verbal reinforcement combinations, but in the intra-dimensional shift learning, there were tendencies that RN was most effective and NW was least effective. 3. The error factor analysis in the shift learning made clear that many error factors showed higher rates of appearances in the intra-dimensional shift learning than in the inter-dimensonal shift learning. The

公開者 千葉大学教育学部
コンテンツの種類 紀要論文 Departmental Bulletin Paper
DCMI資源タイプ text
ファイル形式 application/pdf
ISSN 0577-6856
NCID AN00179512
掲載誌情報 千葉大学教育学部研究紀要. 第1部 Vol.23 page.39-47 (19741200)
言語 日本語
著者版フラグ publisher

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