正常児および精神薄弱児の2選択肢の感覚運動的概念学習と言語強化と誤り要因分析   :   The Effects of Verbal Reinforcement Combinations on the Two-alternative Conceptual Sensory-Motor Learning and Extinction in Normal and Mentally Retarded Children and Analyses of Error Factors 

作成者 松田, 伯彦
作成者の別表記 Matsuda, Michihiko
日本十進分類法 (NDC) 370
内容 言語強化の3つの組合せ, すなわち, RW, RNおよびNWの効果を精神薄弱児とほぼ精神年令の等しい正常児に, 9選択単位2選択肢の感覚運動的概念学習の習得と消去を行なわせることにより調べ, さらに誤り要因分析をおこない, 学習過程の質的な差異を検討した。その結果は次のようであった。1.習得期における言語強化の差は, 正常児, 精神薄弱児ともになかった。しかし, 反応様式においては, 精神薄弱児のRN群において, 同じ位置をくりかえす反応が強くみられた。2.消去過程の結果から, Nがほとんど強化値を得ていないことが示された。3.正常児と精神薄弱児を比較すると, 習得期の成績はあきらかに後者が劣り, 特に精神薄弱児のRN群は同じ位置をくり返す反応様式が強いため習得が劣った。選択単位の位置効果は, 正常児より精神薄弱児の方が強くみられた。また, 精神薄弱児の方が正常児より, Alternation with resnect to positionやRepetition with respect to positionのステレオタイプな反応が多少多かった。以上の結果から, 正常児と精神薄弱児の学習において量的に明瞭な差異がみられ, さらに質的にも後者が劣ることが示された。これらに主として学習課題の特性とLuriaの理論から考察を加えた。
The purposes of the experiment were to examine effects of the verbal reinforcement combinations on a conceptual sensory-motor learning, that is, a maze learning, in the normal and the mentally retarded children under the condition of closed eyes, and an alyze the learning processes by the analysis of error factors. One of two kinds of linear mazes with 9 choice units having two alternatives (Maze H; see Matsuda, 1973) was used at a random in each S. At each choice point there was one of two kinds of tactual cues. In each choice point S was asked to choose one of two alternatives which they thought correct and to make his finger run along the chosen way of the maze. Correct connections between two tactual cues and two positions of alternatives had been decided in advance by E. For example, when the tactual cue at choice points is concave the choice of the left alternative is always correct, and the tactual cue at choice points is convex, the choice of the right alternative is always correct. After each choice Ss were reinforced according to one of three verbal reinforcement combinations, that is, RW, RN and NW. The criterion of the learning was defined as the state of all correct responses in a trial with 9 choice points. After the acquisition, 10 trials were continued without any reinforcement, that is, extinction. The results were as follows: 1. In the acquisitisn, there was no differences among three verbal reinforcement groups both in the normal children and in the mentally retarded children. But error factor analyses made clear that RN group in mentally retarded children (see Matsude & Matsuda, 1968), showed more often responses of 'Repetition with respect to position' than other groups. Results of the extinction suggested that N had not been able to obtain any reinforcement values during the acquisition. 2. Performance of the mentally retarded children was clearly inferior to the normal children in the acquisition. The effect of serial position was stronger in the mentally retarded children than in the norma

公開者 千葉大学教育学部
コンテンツの種類 紀要論文 Departmental Bulletin Paper
DCMI資源タイプ text
ファイル形式 application/pdf
ISSN 0577-6856
NCID AN00179512
掲載誌情報 千葉大学教育学部研究紀要. 第1部 Vol.23 page.49-70 (19741200)
情報源 Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Chiba University. Part I
言語 日本語
著者版フラグ publisher

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