課題解決場面の観察学習における観察者の言語化の効果   :   Effects of Verbalization by Observers on Observational Learning with Rule-governed Problem-solving Task 

作成者 坂野, 雄二
作成者の別表記 Sakano, Yuji
日本十進分類法 (NDC) 370
内容 4次元各3価で構成される継時弁別課題を用いた観察学習において, 観察者がモデル観察中に行うモデリング刺激の言語化とモデル観察直後のリハーサル, および学習課題の難易度が, 観察学習にそれぞれどのような効果を持っているかを検討するために, 2つの実験が行われた。被験者は男女大学生(19〜21才)である。実験Iでは観察者の言語化と課題の難易度が変数とされ, 実験IIでは, 難課題条件の下でリハーサルの効果が検討された。その結果, 以下のような点が明らかにされた。(1)課題の難易度が低い場合には, モデル観察の効果は即座にあらわれ, 学習成績は上昇する。(2)しかし, 難易度が高い場合でも, 観察者に言語化を行わせることによって, 学習成績はかなり向上する。(3)学習が進むにしたがって言語化の効果はより顕著になり, 学習初期にみられた言語化の妨害効果は減少する。(4)これは特に, 課題の難易度が高い場合に, その傾向が大である。(5)学習の初期では, 言語化にリハーサルを組み合わせることによって, 学習成績の急激な上昇がみられる。(6)本実験のような言語化の手続き(モデルの4試行毎の言語化, ならびにモデル試行と観察者のテスト試行の反復)では, 学習成績はおよそ, 観察者の言語化量に対する単調増加関数的に向上すると考えられる。
As suggested by social learning theory, verbalization by observers has mediational functions and promotes the notable speed of the observational learning and long-term retention of modeled contents. The rehearsal of modeling stimuli by observers also plays an important role in the retention subprocess of observational learning. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the verbalization, rehearsal by observers, and the difficulty of task on observational learning. Experiment I tested the relative contribution of the verbalization by observers and the difficulty of task on observational learning. The Ss (observers) were 44 undergraduate students. The observational learning task was a successive discrimination task with four dimensions. A 2×2×4 factorial design was introduced. The first factor was the verbalization by observers, that is, the Ss observe the modeling stimuli with guided verbalization or not. The second factor was the difficulty of the observational task (difficult or easy task). And the last factor was the learning phases of observers; Ss perform 20-successive-trials as one learning phase four times and among these learning phases model also exhibits 20trials. Experiment II tests whether rehearsal by observers facilitates the observational learning or not. 33 Ss, also undergraduate students, were assigned to one of four treatment conditions involving (a) verbalization plus rehearsal (b), verbalization, and (c) no treatment, Ss in the first group were asked to rehearse the modeling stimuli before their own trials and the latter groups were identical with two groups with difficult task in experiment I. The major findings of these experiments were as follows. The Ss, who learned the easy task, performed significantly faster and better than the Ss, who learned the difficult task. However, the latter Ss performed better, when they were assisted with guided verbalization of modeling stimuli. In the later learning phase the verbalization was more effective than in the earliest learning phas

公開者 千葉大学教育学部
コンテンツの種類 紀要論文 Departmental Bulletin Paper
DCMI資源タイプ text
ファイル形式 application/pdf
ISSN 0577-6856
NCID AN00179512
掲載誌情報 千葉大学教育学部研究紀要. 第1部 Vol.29 page.15-26 (19801220)
情報源 Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Chiba University. Part I
言語 日本語
著者版フラグ publisher

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